Suez Canal Agreement

The very aggressive French General Beaufre immediately proposed that the Anglo-French forces occupy the canal zone by air landings instead of waiting for the ten days scheduled for the treatment of Revise II and that it was necessary to take the risk of taking paratroopers for several days without prospect of landing at sea. [234] On November 3, Beaufre Keightley and Stockwell eventually convinced Keightley and Stockwell of the benefits of his approach and obtained authorization for Operation Telescope, as Beaufre had designated the air attack on the canal area by a code name. [235] At the time, Western Europe imported two million barrels per day from the Middle East, 1,200,000 by tankers through the canal, and another 800,000 by pipeline from the Persian Gulf to the Mediterranean, where tankers received them. Britain and France have sought Israeli support for an alliance against Egypt. The parties agreed that Israel would invade Sinai. Britain and France would then intervene, supposedly to separate the Israeli and Egyptian warring forces, and both would order to withdraw at a distance of 16 kilometers on both sides of the canal. [159] Instead of the 18 nations` proposal, the United States proposed a channel user association that would establish operating rules. Fourteen of the other nations, including Pakistan, agreed. Britain, in particular, thought a violation of the rules of association would lead to military force, but after Eden gave a speech in his place in Parliament on September 12, US Ambassador Dulles insisted that “we have no intention of shooting ourselves into the canal.” [120]:89-92 The United States worked hard through diplomatic channels to resolve the crisis without resorting to conflict. “The British and French reluctantly agreed to follow the diplomatic route, but saw it only as an attempt to buy time to continue their military preparations.” [135] The British, Washington`s closest ally, ignored Eisenhower`s picky warning that the American people would not accept a military solution. [136] On the morning of October 30, Britain and France sent ultimatums to Egypt and Israel. They launched Operation Musket on October 31 with a bombing campaign.

[228] Nasser responded by sinking the 40 ships in the canal and closing it for all navigation – navigation would not move until early 1957. Despite the risk of invasion of the canal zone, Field Marshal Abdel Hakim Amer ordered Egyptian troops in Sinai to remain in place, with Amer Nasser confidently assuring that the Egyptians could defeat the Israelis in Sinai and then defeat the Franco-British forces as soon as they landed in the canal zone. [229] Nasser`s response was the nationalization of the Suez Canal. . . .

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