Many economists argue that the current level of TaA funding is largely insufficient to meet the increase in trade-related job losses. “There are pockets that have felt a lot of pain,” Hanson says. “The existence of these pockets underscores our political failure to help regions and individuals adapt to the effects of globalization.” Since NAFTA, trade between the United States and its North American neighbors has more than tripled and grown faster than U.S. trade with the rest of the world. Canada and Mexico are the top two destinations for U.S. exports, with a share of more than one-third. Most estimates conclude that the agreement has increased U.S. gross domestic product (GDP) by less than 0.5%, which equates to an additional $80 billion over the U.S. economy, with full implementation or several billion dollars of additional growth per year. Chapter 19 of NAFTA was a trade litigation mechanism that subjects anti-dumping and compensatory tariff (AD/CVD) rules to binational panel review or conventional judicial review.  In the United States, for example, review of decisions by authorities imposing anti-dumping and countervailing duties is generally referred to the U.S.
International Court of Commerce, a Section III court. However, the NAFTA parties were given the opportunity to appeal decisions against binational bodies made up of five citizens of the two NAFTA countries.  Participants were generally lawyers with experience in international commercial law. Since NAFTA did not contain physical provisions for AD/CVD, the panel was tasked with determining whether the final decisions of the agencies to which AD/CVD were parties were consistent with domestic national law. Chapter 19 was an anomaly in international dispute resolution because it did not apply international law, but required a body made up of individuals from many countries to review the application of a country`s domestic law. [Citation required] The meat industry was one of the most affected agricultural sectors. In 2004, Mexico moved from a small player in the U.S. export market to the second largest importer of U.S.
agricultural products, and NAFTA may have been an important catalyst for this change.